Is it potential to reside with out your mind? As unlikely as it could appear, scientists have found uncommon circumstances of sufferers lacking giant parts of their mind, but are in some way nonetheless capable of reside nearly regular lives. In 2015, a group of neurologists and radiologists from Jinan Hospital in Shandong Province, China, wrote to the journal Mind (opens in new tab) reporting a uncommon and strange discovering.
A 24-year-old feminine affected person had been admitted with signs of nausea and vomiting. These have been new signs, however she’d additionally suffered from dizziness and strolling difficulties for many of her life. Regardless of these challenges, she was married and had a toddler.
The docs referred her for laptop tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to look her mind for a trigger of those signs. What they noticed was a dysfunction so uncommon that lower than ten individuals all through the world have been identified to be residing with it. They found that the affected person was utterly lacking her cerebellum, a area of the mind regarded as essential for strolling and different actions. Uncover extra about this uncommon situation and different unimaginable details about our mind in How It Works concern 166 (opens in new tab).
Additionally within the newest How It Works journal: Find out how your accent varieties and the way it’s formed over time; how the world retains time with the facility of atoms; see contained in the Statue of Liberty and learn the way it was constructed; what causes the unusual phenomenon of pink lightning; what family mud is fabricated from (put together to be grossed out); how Scandinavia’s fjords are fashioned, and far more.
Learn on to search out out extra about concern 166’s greatest options.
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Contained in the Statue of Liberty
The Statue of Liberty has lengthy been an emblem of freedom and hope. Its official title is “Liberty Enlightening the World”, named by its sculptor Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi. Additionally known as Woman Liberty, the historic landmark was created to commemorate the centenary of the Declaration of Independence, together with America’s shut relationship with France, which gifted the statue within the late 1800s.
The preliminary idea got here from the French poet, creator and activist Édouard René de Laboulaye. It is typically reported that Laboulaye got here up with the concept at a cocktail party in 1865 following the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, however research have discovered this to be false. Proof means that Laboulaye conceptualized the statue between 1870 and 1871.
The statue’s design additionally acknowledges beliefs specified by the Declaration of Independence following the top of the American Civil Struggle and the abolishment of slavery. Woman Liberty has additionally been described because the “Mom of Exiles” by hundreds of thousands of immigrants which have turned to the nation for refuge.
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The copper statue — which turned from reddish brown to its iconic jade inexperienced coloration over time — was financed by the French public by way of lotteries, leisure occasions and public charges, whereas the stone pedestal on which it stands was funded by the U.S. by way of theatrical occasions, auctions and a profitable alternative for donors to have their names printed in “The New York World” newspaper by the famend Joseph Pulitzer.
Study extra about how the Statue of Liberty was inbuilt concern 166 of How It Works journal (opens in new tab).
How does the world hold time?
Have you ever ever puzzled how the entire world stays in sync? We reside in numerous time zones, however from New York to Melbourne, a second is at all times a second. That is as a result of everybody units their native clocks utilizing an internationally agreed commonplace known as Coordinated Common Time, often known as UTC.
UTC is outlined by an company of the United Nations known as the Worldwide Telecommunication Union. It is based mostly on two measurements: the ticking of a whole bunch of ultra-stable atomic clocks (Worldwide Atomic Time) and the rotation of the Earth (Common Time).
Nations internationally set their native time by including or subtracting from UTC relying on their place on the globe. UTC, or the world clock, has been round because the first day of the Nineteen Sixties, shortly after Louis Essen constructed the primary atomic clock. This precision timepiece promised to resolve the centuries-old drawback of second fingers operating too quick or too gradual.
Earlier than the Nineteen Fifties, probably the most correct clocks used vibrating quartz crystals to maintain time, however the seconds would drift every day. Essen’s invention used the quantum properties of caesium atoms to maintain the crystals in sync.
Now greater than 400 extraordinarily steady atomic clocks hold observe of time the world over. Every one transmits a sign to the Worldwide Bureau of Weights and Measures in France. The bureau compares them as soon as a month to provide you with a closing quantity known as Worldwide Atomic Time. Every clock will get a special weighting within the calculation relying on how steady it’s.
See how an atomic clock retains such exact time within the newest concern of How It Works journal (opens in new tab).
How fjords fashioned
Walled in by steep, rocky cliffs, river-like techniques observe by way of a number of the planet’s most mountainous terrain. The water discovered flowing here’s a mixture of freshwater that has run down from the mountaintops and saltwater filling in from the ocean. The water traverses mountain valleys like a river, however this can be a extra distinctive system often known as a fjord.
Comparatively uncommon internationally, fjords are outlined by their formation. Their handy low paths have been produced by glaciers as they eroded the land over the last ice age. The motion of glaciers was strongest inland, ensuing within the deepest sections of those slender waterways — generally hundreds of metres deep — being situated farthest from the coast.
Fjords observe a pre-carved path, directing water between dramatic mountain peaks. All through historical past, people have utilised fjords for inland navigation. The time period fjord is derived from this, which means “the place one fares by way of” in Norwegian. Norway and different Scandinavian international locations maintain the best share of Earth’s fjords, however this title has been adopted internationally.
Fjords can department out into many arms, spreading far throughout the panorama. Many of those stretch into very distant areas, and as a consequence of many fjords being tough to entry, they continue to be largely unpolluted. In addition they function a document of Earth’s pure historical past and a protected atmosphere the place the motion of glaciers from many hundreds of years in the past may be tracked.
Uncover how fjords type and see inside one in every of these historical waterways within the newest How It Works journal (opens in new tab).